Tuesday, 27 November 2012

How to transliterate Gurmukhi/Panjabi

Panjabi (in Gurmukhi script) 

Vowels and Diphthongs (see Note 1) 
ਅ   a             ਏ  e 
ਆ  ā            ਐ  ai 
ਇ   i              ਓ  o 
ਈ   ī               ਔ  au 
ਉ   u              ਊ  ū 
Consonants (see Note 2) 
Sibilants  Aspirate  Gutturals  Palatals 
ਸ  sa           ਹ  ha      ਕ  ka       ਚ  ca 
ਸ਼  sha                       ਖ  kha      ਛ  cha 
                                 ਖ਼  kha     ਜ  ja 
                                 ਗ  ga       ਜ਼  za 
                                 ਗ਼  gha     ਝ jha 
                                  ਘ  gha    ਞ  ña 
                                   ਙ  ṅa   
Cerebrals Dentals Labials Semivowels 

ਟ Ṭa          ਤ ta          ਪ  pa     ਯ  ya 
ਠ Ṭha       ਥ tha        ਫ  pha    ਰ ra 
ਡ  a        ਦ  da         ਫ਼  fa      ਲ la 
ਢ  ha      ਧ  dha       ਬ  ba      ਲ ḷa 
ਣ  ṅa        ਨ  na         ਭ  bha    ਵ  wa 
                                  ਮ  ma  ੜ ṛa 
Bindī (see Note 4) Ṭippī (see Note 5) Adhik (see Note 6)
◌ਂ  ṃ  ◌ੰ  m̆  ◌ੱ 
[doubles the following consonant] 

1. Only the vowel forms that appear at the beginning of a syllable are listed; the forms used for 
vowels following a consonant can be found in grammars; no distinction between the two is 
made in transliteration. 
2. The vowel a is implicit after consonant clusters and may be implicit after consonants except 
when they are final or when another vowel is indicated by its appropriate sign.  The cases in 
which the vowel a is implicit, however, can be determined only from a knowledge of the 
language or from suitable reference sources.  In such cases the a is supplied in transliteration. 
3. The dotted letters are used in Urdu words. 
4. Exception:Bindī is transliterated by: 
a) ṅ before gutturals, 
b) ñ before palatals, 
c) ṇ before cerebrals, 
d) n before dentals, and  
e) m before labials. 
5. Exception:Ṭippī is transliterated by: 
a) ṅ before gutturals, 
b) ñ before palatals, 
c) ṇ before cerebrals, 
d) n before dentals, and  
e) m before labials. 
6. Exception: When adhik implies the combination of a non-aspirated and an aspirated 
consonant, the combination is transliterated as a non-aspirated, followed by an aspirated 

Crash course to learn Punjabi/Gurmukhi in 5 days, watch, listen and learn how to read and write Gurmukhi / Punjabi in 5 ground-breaking lessons: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oP748sVJtrY http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vsI9TgV1jpk http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dC9YlwGGgWY http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RFSFA23SEZg http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=31h6ei4Xc30

www.sarblohgranth.com - Loh Parkāsh’ in which the Savant, Akali Kaur Singh Nihang

It is oral tradition that the Sarbloh Granth Sahib was completed at the Sarbloh Bunga, now called Langar Sahib at Hazur Sahib (Takht Abachal Nagar, Hazur Sahib, Nanded). The last verses were heard by Banda Singh Bahadur and were written from Sanskrit sutras  preserved by a sect of Sadhus, who are said to have handed them down from the time of Guru Gobind Singh’s previous avatār,  Rishi Dusht Daman. The sutras are still in a private collection with a family at Hazur Sahib. From manuscript evidence we can conclude that the bulk of the Sarbloh Granth Sahib was commenced around 1698 AD at Anandpur Sahib and completed in approximately 1708 AD at Hazur Sahib. The Holy Granth contains ‘The Praise of the Khalsa’, and this would therefore coincide with the momentous event of the formation of the Guru Khalsa Panth, in approximately 1699 AD (1756 VS) according to the Gregorian calendar. 
The tradition is corroborated by the fact that Hazur Sahib and the Gurdvare in the surroundings area have a number of extant manuscripts of Sarbloh Granth Sahib. The Takht Sahib conserves a number of late 17th and early 18th century recensions. Jathedar Joginder Singh ‘Muni’, in Hazūrī Maryādā Prabodh, describes the traditional exegesis (kathā) from Sarbloh Granth Sahib at the Takht Sahib. Svami Harnam Das in his commentary (ṭīkā) of Sarbloh Granth Sahib also records the early recensions of the Sarbloh Granth Sahib at Hazur Sahib, and the Nabho Katho vālī bīṛ from 1698 AD. At the Chhauṇī of Mata Sahib Kaur there is an extant manuscript of Sarbloh Granth Sahib which also has a colophon of 1698 AD/ 1755 VS. In addition, there are other manuscripts with 1698 AD colophons, one manuscript is preserved by the Udasi Sampradāvāṅ at Bhankandi and there is also another at Mukatsar Sahib. Thus, the manuscript evidence is compelling and with a strong tradition there is no doubt about the authorship. Svami Harnam Das Udasi of Kapurthala made an extensive study of Sarbloh Granth Sahib and has indicated that it was completed by Guru Gobind Singh himself. He also argues that if it contains the compositions of some other poets as well then they were accepted by the Guru, just as Guru Arjan Dev accepted the compositions of Bhagats, Bhatts and Sufi Fakirs while compiling the Adi Granth Sahib.
In the Jāp Sāhib, Guru Gobind Singh has given various creative and attribute names to Akal Purakh. Equally he has described God by names like Māhāloh or Sarbloh (the All-Steel) representing the protective and destructive power of the Divine. The following lines are the invocation at the commencement of Akāl Ustati, which is a replica of the signature verses (daskhat) of Guru Gobind Singh:
ੴ ਸਤਿਗੁਰ ਪ੍ਰਸਾਦਿ ॥ Ik Oaṅkār Satigur prasādi.
The Lord is One and he can be attained through the grace of the True Guru.
ਉਤਾਰ ਖਾਸੇ ਦਸਖਤ ਕਾ ॥ ਪਾਤਿਸਾਹੀ ੧੦॥ Utār khase daskhat kā. Pātisāhī 10.
Copy of the manuscript with exclusive signatures of the Tenth Sovereign.
ਅਕਾਲ ਪੁਰਖ ਕੀ ਰਛਾ ਹਮਨੈ ॥ Akāl Purakh kī rachhā hamanai.
The non-temporal Purusha (All-Pervading Lord) is my Protector.
ਸਰਬ ਲੋਹ ਕੀ ਰਛਿਆ ਹਮਨੈ ॥ Sarab Loh kī rachhiā hamanai.
The All-Steel Lord is my Protector.
ਸਰਬ ਕਾਲ ਜੀ ਦੀ ਰਛਿਆ ਹਮਨੈ ॥ Sarab Kāl jī dī rachiā hamanai.
The All-Destroying Lord is my Protector.
ਸਰਬ ਲੋਹ ਜੀ ਦੀ ਸਦਾ ਰਛਿਆ ਹਮਨੈ ॥ Sarab Loh jī dī sadā rachiā hamanai.
The All-Steel Lord is ever my Protector. 
We can clearly see that the names given to Akal Purakh are attribute names and that Guru Gobind Singh ji is worshiping Akal Purakh and no Indian deity. All of these names have been employed in the Sarbloh Granth Sahib (The Scripture of All-Steel/All-Light).
The Loh Prakāsh was written by Akali Hazura Singh Nihang in 1925, he was the head Granthī at Takht Hazur Sahib. Akali Hazura Singh was respected highly, so much so that a Golden plaque, inside the Takht Sahib itself, commemorates his service as the head Granthī. In his publication, Akali Hazura Singh discusses the famous verses of Guru Gobind Singh, The Praises of the Khalsa (Khālse dī Upamāṅ), from the Sarbloh Granth Sahib. His exegesis is highly important as it records the traditional interpretation of the sacred verses. 
The Sarbloh Granth Sahib is essential to understand the concept of the Khalsa Panth. The word ‘Khalsa’ is Persian in origin meaning: pure, unalloyed, with direct contact and responsibility of the owner. In the Deccan and during the Mughal rule, land or property invested directly for the ruler used to be called ‘Khalsa’.  It is said that Bhagat Kabir used this word for those who reject meaningless rituals and are attached in true love with their Creator alone (Kaho Kabīr jan bhae Khālse Prem Bhagati jih jānī) . The spiritual and temporal meaning of this word appealed to the Tenth Guru. He has employed it extensively in the Sarbloh Granth Sahib: 
‘Ātam ras jo jānahī so hai Khālsā dev. Prabh mai mo mai tās mai raṅchak nāhin bhev.’
‘Khalsa is the one who experience the bliss of the Super-Soul. There is no difference between God, me (Guru Gobind Singh) and him.’
‘Khālsā mero rūp hai khās. Khālse meṅ hau karo niwās’
‘The Khalsa is my special form. I reside in the Khalsa’
‘Khālsā Akāl Purakh kī Phauj. Pragaṭio Khālsā Paramātam ki mauj.’ 
‘Khalsa is God’s own legion. The Khalsa is manifest due to the Supreme-Soul’s own wish.’
Please note that in Akali Hazura Singh’s exegesis, the Khalsa is the liberated form of Nirankar (Prāpati Niraṅkarī sivrūp mahānaṅ.), not Shiv ji, as some misled Snatan revivalists are trying to claim. 
The publication also contains the verses narrating the Gurgaddī passing to the Guru Granth Sahib and Guru Khalsa Panth, the importance of Vāhigurū mantra, and the Das grāhī-Das tiāgī (Ten virtues to hold – Ten vices to renounce) for the Khalsa, orated by Guru Gobind Singh.

The first folio of the Sarbloh Granth Sahib given to Mai Bagh Kaur (Mai Bhago) by Guru Gobind Singh. It is still present at Hazur Sahib in the Bunga of Mai Bhago. Photographed by Kamalroop Singh in 2005.

Of special note is the Foreword to the ‘Loh Parkāsh’ in which the Savant, Akali Kaur Singh Nihang, provides us with valuable information. He states that the Purātan Buddha Dal Singhs considered the Sarbloh Granth Sahib to be by authored exclusively by Guru Gobind Singh, and that there were only about ten manuscripts in the whole of India. He humbly requests that a King or rich Sikh should take up the service of printing the Sarbloh Granth Sahib.  His immortal words came true when Panth Pātshāho 96 Croṛī Jathedar Baba Santa Singh completed this great service for the Guru Khalsa Panth Sahib. 
If there are any errors forgive me and please notify me.
Dr. Kamalroop Singh

Dasam Granth Paper presented at the Punjab Research Group

The Praxis of the Dasam Granth: A Research into the Liturgical and Ritualistic Ceremonies of the Scripture.’ Oxford University Sikh Society – April, 2008. Many thanks to Davinder Singh Panesar and Bob Singh Panesar for recording and producing the lecture.

Sunday, 25 November 2012

Did I get a PhD on Sri Dasam Granth Sahib? A response to baseless slander and gossip

Some people in the Sikh community like other communities are ignorant and stupid. Here is some information to clear up some baseless slander and rumours, designed to belittle my contribution to Sikh Studies and the Khalsa Panth. What is sad is when I hear these rumours from so-called friends, but as they say when someone does well, their peers will do their best to bring them down. I have discovered this lately and from within the Sikh community. Below is a Statement from years ago regarding my position about Snatanism! Even though I have never believed this philosophy. 


A Statement 

http://www.panthic.org/news/131/ARTICLE/4518/2008-11-14.html I am not questioning your good intentions surrounding the editorial article. However, I would like make a categorical denial of claims in your editorial that pertain to me. Firstly, I am not a follower of Niddar Singh. Secondly, I do not believe in Snatanism. My PHD involves the study of the manuscripts of the Dasam Granth as well as the siginificance of the Dasam Granth to the Khalsa. As previously stated by me on your website: I do not believe that Sikhi is Snatan. Sikhi is Sikhi. Khalsa is the Third Panth, the third way. The Khalsa belongs to the Guru, and the Guru to the Khalsa. The Khalsa is not an off-shoot of any other movement. It became manifest by the order of Akal . I would ask you to publish this reply so that your readers are aware of facts that are personal to me. 
Kamalroop Singh

Thursday, 22 November 2012

A translation of the Shastravidia book by Baba Gian Singh coming soon!

Baba Giana Singh taught the most number of Gatka students in colonial times, when Gatka was under threat. Baba ji himself learnt shastravidia from either Baba Mangal Singh or Baba Swaran Singh. He published some books on the Adi Guru Granth Sahib ji which were printed by the SGPC. Dr Trilochan Singh writes in Ernest Trump & Hew McLeod as Scholars of Sikh History:
'Bhai Gian Singh, a Nihang scholar spent over forty years on similar textual study. He has recorded his findings of some very rare Manuscripts. He left one copy of his findings with me and another with Nihang Chief in the historic Damdama Sahib Dera. He published some basic findings.
Guru Gobind Singh got a number of copies prepared at Damdama a place specifically built for Scriptural studies at Anandpur. In all these, the hymns of Guru Tegh Bahadur were included. The author of this book has two copies dated 1705 AD and 1707 AD.(autographed by Guru Gobind Singh). Randhir Singh research scholar who had studied and recorded his notes in a book and Gian Singh Nihang who prepared notes on over a hundred codices (Birs) studied both these codices (Birs). Both of them found the 1705 AD codex the best and textually the most correct out of those studied by them. There no doubt exist many authentic and correct copies.

Prof G S Mann writes Randhir Singh, Kundan Singh, and Gian Singh Nihang published Sri Guru Granth Sahib ji dian Santha-Sainchian are Puratan Hathlikhit Pavan Biran de Praspar Path-Bhedan di Suchi ( The list of textual variations present in the early sacred manuscripts and printed versions of the Guru Granth Sahib) in 1977, which includes important textual details in the early scriptural manuscripts.

Although he was a great scholar he was a renowned master of Shastravidia and taught thousands of Singhs according to Baba Santa Singh at Akali Phoola Singh burj in Amritsar. He was known to have a lot of bir ras or warrior spirit, and gave physical beating to anyone who cared to transgress his patience.

Baba Santa Singh comments in the foreward to his the book written by Baba Giana Singh on Shastravidia that: 'Nihang Singh Baba Gian Singh Sutantar Purane Shastardhari Singh Han te Shastra vidia de vi change giata hai, ustad banke unna hazare singhan nu shastra vidia sikhai hai.' Nihang Singh Baba Gian Singh is a old wise armed Singh, who knows Shastravidia very well, being a Master, he has taught thousands of Singhs Shastravidia.' This book has been translated into English and will be published in the next few weeks.

The cover to the book titled Shastar Vidia - Baba Gian Singh - Buddha Dal press, Lower Mal Road, Patiala

Baba Giana Singh notes:

IK Oankar Vahiguru ki fi fateh! Sabh to pahila shastra-vidia da mul mantra parna chahida hai. Jo Gurmukh shastar vidia sikhna arabh kare, os da ih faraz hai ki mul mantra kant karake jarur hi nitnem naal paria kare. Jo Singh Sabh Gurmukh Nitnem Naal Path karega us singh nu datte Maha Akal de kazaney vicho Adi Shakti prapat hovegi, jo bharosey rakhega te bachan sat kar manega.

The mul mantra is Bhagauti Astotra, found in the Buddha Dal Gutka Sahib. I have translated this  into English and it is available................http://www.kamalroopsingh.blogspot.co.uk/2012/11/sri-bhagauti-astotra-patisahi-10.html. Bhagauti Astotra is in puratan seventeenth century sarups of Sri Dasam Granth Sahib, one example is the sarup at Patna Sahib (1698 AD). It is not in the current printed edition. It was written by Maharaj, but many Nihang Singhs and Sants have preserved it orally. Its in the current Buddha Dal Gutka Sahib. Its also used in Shastra Puja.

One of Baba Gian Singh students is also called Gian Singh. he is still alive and is about 98 years old, he reads a Panj Granthi and Das Granthi everyday at amritvela followed by practice of Shastarvidiya, he was a student of Sant Baba Gurbachan Singh Bhinderawale. He has trained 17 Singhs into skilled teachers of Shastarvidiya. May Maharaj allow Baba Ji to keep inspiring us, and the best of health. This photo was taken at Akali Phoola Singh Burj, Diwali, 2005. Baba Ji is an exponant of Jhatka Gatka, or Jang vidiya. Pictured below:

Another famous student of Baba Giana Singh 'Sutantra' is Baba Pritam Singh from Patiala, pictured below, with a video of his Gatka:

Wednesday, 7 November 2012

Some of my papers, publications and future work


‘The Dasam Granth’ Canada University of Alberta Sikh Society, 2003

The ‘Jāp Sāhib’ 3HO organization Espanola, America, June, 2005

Cited in the Khanda and the Dhulfiqar, F Luis, Sikh Formations, 2006

Cited in Bhavasaramrit, Tirath Singh Nirmala, 2006

‘The praxis of the Dasam Granth: a research into the liturgical and ritualistic ceremonies of the scripture.’ Oxford University Sikh Society – April, 2008.

The Living Guru – The Holy Sikh scripture’, Newark Museum, Leicester – October 15th, 2008

‘A discussion of the scriptures of Guru Gobind Singh in relation to Sikh history and praxis’, Punjab Research Group – July, 2008

‘The Dasam Granth Re-examined’, University of Lund, Sweden, Panjab Conference, June 2010.

Dasam Granth: Questions and Answers, Archimedes Press, 2011

The Translations of Dr Leyden, Panjab Cultural Association, 2012

The Turban - The Impact of 9/11 on Sikh Identity - University of Potsdam 2012.


Dasam Granth: Essays, Lectures, and Translations, OUP, forthcoming 2012

Gatka: The Sikh Martial Art, Handbook of Sikh Studies, forthcoming 2012

The History of the Sikhs 1800-1920, Brill, forthcoming 2013

Restoration of one of the oldest Guru Granth Sahib circa 1660 in the UK.

Restoration of one of the oldest Guru Granth Sahib's Bangladesh.

Cataloging a manuscript collection in an extensive collection in Russia.


Weekly presenter on the Panjabi language Sukhsagar radio, 2004

An expert guest on the Sikh Channel and Sangat Tv, 2009-2012

Appeared on Zee TV News, India, March 2003, 2005, 2007, 2010

Appeared on an interview with Green Earth Pictures, Bombay, 2010

Appeared on the very popular BBC ‘50 Places you have to visit before you die’


Consulted for the ‘Marvari Horse’ BBC forthcoming

Archives Officer Guru Nanak Sikh Museum, Leicester, 2003 - current

Newark Museum, 2008, Sikh exhibition

Language consultant Chester Beatty Library Dublin, 2006

Language consultant for the Royal Asiatic, London, 2007

Language consultant for the GCHQ, 2007 - 2008

Language consultant for the Crown Prosecution Services, 2008 - 2009

Language consultant for New Scotland Yard

Consultant for Yvoir, a French documentary about the Sikhs, forthcoming

Language consultant for Cybersikhi Ltd


A director of the Panjab Cultural Association

A director of the Sikh Student camp and organisation

A director of the Akhand Japa Retreat

Member of the Equality and Human Rights commission


The textual history of Dasam Granth

The Sarbloh Granth, manuscripts and textual history (unpublished)

Manuscriptology, dating, variations between texts

The history of colonialisation, and the change in historiography in South Asia

The Braj Bhasha language and its texts

Anglo-Panjabi history

History of the warrior Sikhs

Social issues faced by the Panjabi diaspora

The Mughal Empire and the culture of Rajasthan



Monday, 5 November 2012

Some books on Sri Dasam Granth Sahib

Book Review of Sri Dasam Granth Sahib: Questions and Answers by Harjeet Singh Grewal

Sri Dasam Granth Sahib: questions and answers
Gurinder Singh Mann & Kamalroop Singh, Archimedes Press, 2011100 pp., £8.99, ISBN 978-0-9568435-0-0

In Sri Dasam Granth Sahib: questions and answers, the authors Gurinder Singh Mann and Kamalroop Singh  seek to redress recent debates about not only the importance and relevancy of the Sri Dasam Granth Sahib  (SDGS) for the Sikh tradition, but they also entertain questions regarding its authenticity, authorship, as well  as the historical and contemporary position of this text for Sikh thought. The perspective of the book is  scholarly and grass roots, as both authors have spent time as active members of the Sikh community as well  as having pursued scholarly research of the SDGS at the postgraduate level. This volume appears to be  released as a needed intervention into the current controversy surrounding the SDGS as well as a brief  installment along the way to a larger, more comprehensive work discussing the SDGS. With a view to  describing some of the less well-understood intricacies of the SDGS, it is a welcome addition to the limited  number of English language volumes discussing the SDGS.
This work is meant to be a resource for students interested in Sikh Studies. As the title suggests, the book is  structured around common questions that many Sikhs today have regarding the SDGS. Indeed, as the  preface to the book reveals, some of the 50 questions posed in this work have been asked and addressed by  the authors previously on the following three websites: (1) www.sridasamgranth.com (2)  www.patshahi10.org and (3) www.dasam.info. However, while it may seem that the volume is merely repeating information that has appeared in other media, the volume is important as the authors have not only revised their original answers, but also because the volume collates these answers giving readers a singular reference for questions regarding the SDGS. The book is well researched, using manuscript sources from the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries as well as cross-referencing issues that arise from debates about the SDGS with passages from the primary Sikh scripture, Sri Guru Granth Sahib.The authors also use illustrations from these manuscripts as well as pictures of seventeenth-and eighteenth-century Sikh relics in order to support the view that they are purporting.
The work begins with a general description of the SDGS, it addresses the question of authorship – a point which is revisited at disparate points in the text, the SDGS’s central theme of the oneness of god is discussed, the SDGS’s engagement with moral themes,and finally a brief synopsis of the SDGS’s contents is provided for those unfamiliar with its outline. One of the central claims of the authors is that the SDGS gives a reinterpretation or, perhaps even, a correction to ‘Hindu’ mythology in order to foreground the moral core of the SDGS. This is done by Guru Gobind Singh not in order to link Sikhs to ‘Hinduism’, but rather to subvert the very idea that ‘myths’ can be claimed by a single historical bloc such as the term ‘Hindu’ suggests. The authors claim that,through the usage of vir ras, the SDGS puts forward a Sikh panthic worldview which exhorts people to take the Khalsa path and become karma yogi or a proactive renunciate. In donning such a stance, it compels people toward becoming true sovereign ethical beings – although this point is not expanded upon. The SDGS is not simple a secondary scripture, nor is it in opposition to Sikhi; more to the point, it is ‘complimentary’ with regard to the central message of Sri Guru Granth Sahib. Furthermore, commentary and understanding of the SDGS require a broader education in and knowledge of Sri Guru Granth Sahib and other Sikh scripture. In taking such a stance, the authors seek to correct the misplaced presumption that Sikhs had a singular scripture and restore the position of a scriptural constellation which fuels the Sikh political–spiritual vantage point.
From here the work considers the manuscript tradition as well as other early texts such as the various Rahitnamas. It is shown that these early works often engage with theSDGS, build upon it to develop a core group of ideals and, thereby, often assume the importance of the SDGS. Further on in the work, a discussion regarding the British Imperial perspective on the SDGS and its relation to the ‘Sikh Martial Spirit’ is provided as well as a description of the work done by the Sodhak Committee, which collated 32 manuscripts of the SDGS in 1895 and 1896. The central points from this committee’s deliberations are also given. These points include confirming that the entire SDGS was the work of Guru Gobind Singh, stating that the dates are verifiable and historical,Guru Gobind Singh used several pen-names throughout, and that some manuscripts contained unique content. The committee was central in providing a standardized text of the SDGS. The legacy of Singh Sabhia, Babu Teja Singh Bhashauria (1867–1933), is hereafter given as one of the central mechanisms through which the debate regarding the SDGS,but also sections of the Sri Guru Granth, begins. Teja Singh expressed his view that socalled spurious sections of these texts should be expunged and the remaining materialbe collated as a single scripture. Despite being excommunicated by not only the AkalTakht but also Takht Hazur Sahib, Takht Patna Sahib, and Takht Kesgarh Sahib between 1928 and 1929, Teja Singh’s legacy continues to fuel secular reformist sentiment regarding the Sikh scripture. The final series of questions deals with contemporary rites and sections of the Sikh panth which continue to uphold the position of the SDGS.
The very structure of Sri Dasam Granth Sahib: questions and answers, a question–answer format reminiscent of exegetical steeks and tikas, reveals one of the major limits of this work: its seemingly theological core. Despite trying to address the rationalist secular attacks from reformist Sikh critics and ‘Western’ scholars, the work itself relies upon the notion of a pre-existent theological core to the Sikh tradition which pervades what comes to resemble a Sikh Scriptural constellation. This is not to diminish the importance of the point that the authors are attempting to make, nor is it meant to takeaway from the very necessary corrective which they are engaging with regard to the rationalist monotheolingual perspective of Sikh scripture. It is merely to make the point that a more elaborate critical core to the argument may facilitate and strengthen the point being made. Beyond this point, the Sikh theological question–answer format can at times lead the work to read as disjoint, jarring, and sporadic. This structural problem often requires a degree of cross-referencing between different questions – an endeavor quickly frustrated by the lack of a comprehensive index.
While meant for students of Sikh Studies, this work assumes some degree of familiarity with Sikh textual materials, history, and theological debates. As such, the intricacies of the position being taking regarding the validity and centrality of the SDGS maybe missed by the uninitiated. Therefore, it is better suited to Sikhs or scholars with an active interest in textual and theological questions. The position of the authors is that the Dasam Granth is a Sikh scripture; that it is central to the development of Sikh rites and ceremonies; that the evolution and continued adherence to the Khalsa ideals of Guru Gobind Singh depend upon the SDGS; and, lastly, that the work in its entirety was originally authored by the tenth and last Sikh Guru. As such, the argument made is that when questioning the validity of the SDGS, a kind of symbolic violence is being done to the entire Sikh tradition. To extrapolate somewhat from the position taken by the authors in this work, one may claim that the debates around the SDGS are centered upon the position of Sikhi as a religion within the confines of a hegemonic secular discourse.In short, the ideals expressed and the reinterpretations of central ‘Hindu myths’in the SDGS need to be put in doubt if the discourse of secularism is to dominate. Thus,this work attempts to correct some of the invasive machinations by secular scholars of religion. As a brief installment of a larger more comprehensive volume discussing the SDGS, Sri Dasam Granth Sahib: questions and answers, raises some important points and provides a necessary corrective to the ongoing machinations of a minority of people regarding the position of the SDGS in the Sikh tradition and textual corpus. However,due to some of the structural and critical constraints outlined, the main argument’s dialectic rings hollow and leaves one anticipating the larger work referenced in the text’s preface.
Harjeet Singh Grewal
PhD Candidate
University of Michigan© 2012
Sikh Formations: Religion, Culture,Theory:  16 Oct 2012.

Sri Dasam Granth Sahib: Questions and Answers by Gurinder Singh Mann and Kamalroop Singh.


ISBN: 978-0956843500
Pages: 120
Images: 20 images
Price: £8.99
Sri Dasam Granth Sahib is the second sacred scripture of Sikhism after Guru Granth Sahib. This book gives a complete understanding of the history, compilation and relevance of Guru Gobind Singh’s compositions. In recent years many fallacies and misinterpretations have crept into the study and understanding of the scripture.
The authors of this book, Gurinder Singh Mann and Kamalroop Singh have given elaborate answers to 50 questions posed on the Sikh scripture. They have considered manuscript and historical evidence to provide the readers with thoughtful insights on how the scripture should be perceived.
This book features:
*50 questions and 50 elaborate answers on the scripture.
*Rare pictures of Sri Dasam Granth manuscripts.
*The Akal Takht Sahib stance on the Guru’s bani.
*The British views on the Sikh scripture.
*The relevance of Sri Dasam Granth in modern society.

Srī Bhagautī Astotra Pātisāhī 10 Translated by Kamalroop Singh Edited by Gurinder Singh Mann